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These results clearly demonstrate the role of tamoxifen on endometrial stromal cells, and raise the possibility that tamoxifen promotes endometrial cancer partially through its effects in the stroma. Tamoxifen is metabolized to an array of metabolites with estrogenic effects, and also to reactive intermediates that may form protein or DNA adducts to cause DNA damage. Therefore, it has been hypothesized that tamoxifen induces malignancies by its genotoxicity.

Intraperitoneal administration of tamoxifen to female mice leads to the formation of hepatic DNA adducts (27). However, analysis of tamoxifen (Tam)-DNA adducts in endometrial tissues from patients treated with tamoxifen has yielded mixed results. Several studies failed to detect Tam-DNA how many calories in endometrial tissue (28,29), in contrast with a number of other studies (30,31). In addition, Tam-DNA adduct formation has been detected in glandular and surface epithelia following the incubation how many calories human endometrial explants with tamoxifen (32).

While Tam-DNA adduct formation is possible in human how many calories, compelling evidence that this drives endometrial cancer is lacking. Furthermore, the how many calories of developing hepatocellular cancer is minimal in females treated with tamoxifen, and Tam-DNA adduct formation in endometrial tissue occurs at an extremely low level and in only a few females.

Instead, genomic profiles are correlated with morphological subtypes of the endometrial tumors (33). Therefore, the importance of genotoxity as a major pathway for tamoxifen-induced endometrial cancer is unclear. Several genes have been shown to be associated with sporadic endometrial cancer. Mutation of the K-ras protooncogene occurs most frequently in codons 12 and 13 of exon 1, and has been detected in 4. Sequencing and analysis of genetic mutations of these genes in tissue samples of tamoxifen-associated and sporadic endometrial cancer patients have been conducted by a number of research groups.

Furthermore, the presence of the K-ras mutation is significantly affected by the duration of tamoxifen treatment (43). Similarly, higher p53 mutation or overexpression rates were reported in several studies (5,39), but not in others (44). The likelihood of tamoxifen increasing endometrial cancer rate by enhancing mutations of driver genes for sporadic endometrial cancer is low. Instead, long-term tamoxifen exposure is likely to promote endometrial carcinogenesis predominantly via how many calories alterations.

It is possible that tamoxifen offers endometrial how many calories that contain pre-existing mutations a growth advantage via estrogenic and epigenetic alterations. The result of these activities is a significant increase in the incidence of endometrial cancer in long-term tamoxifen users.

In breast cancer cells, tamoxifen acts as an ER antagonist by competing with estrodiol for binding, and by inducing conformational changes that block the interaction of ER Xultophy Injection Degludec and Liraglutide)- Multum co-activator proteins (45). In endometrial tissue, tamoxifen is known to exert estrogenic actions.

One mechanism that may explain the antagonistic and agonistic effects of tamoxifen in different target tissues is the ссылка recruitment of co-regulators to the ER target gene promoter. In breast cancer cells, tamoxifen induces the recruitment of co-repressors nuclear receptor co-repressor and silencing mediator for retinoid and how many calories hormone receptors to ER target promoters (12).

However, in the endometrium, tamoxifen recruits the co-activators steroid receptor co-activator-1 (SRC-1), amplified in breast cancer-1 (AIB1) and CREB-binding protein (CBP), rather than co-repressors, to ER target gene (12). Inhibition of SRC-1 in Ishikawa cells eliminated tamoxifen-induced gene expression (12). This differential co-regulator recruitment appears to be limited to ER targets that do not contain a classical estrogen how many calories element (ERE) in their promoters, including c-MYC and IGF1 (12).

The tissue-dependent mode of action of tamoxifen may be explained by the relative abundance of co-factors in different tissues (46). The expression level of co-regulators such as SRC-1 is low in MCF7 breast cancer cells compared with endometrial Ishikawa cells (12). In addition, SRC-1 activity is regulated by Src kinase, how many calories is highly activated in endometrial cancer cells compared нажмите для продолжения breast cancer cells (47).

However, this mechanism only partially explains the differences observed between breast and endometrial cancer cells, as tamoxifen did not display agonistic effects in all estrogen target genes, indicating the involvement of other molecular mechanisms.

Other than activating nuclear estrogen receptors to induce downstream genomic signaling, estrogen is also known to activate rapid non-genomic signaling events independently of nuclear ER. GPR30, an orphan G-protein-coupled receptor, has been proposed to be a new membrane-bound estrogen receptor involved in the rapid non-genomic effects of estrogen. In endometrial cancer, overexpression of GPR30 occurs more frequently how many calories high-grade and advanced stage tumors, and is correlated with poor prognosis (52).

Tamoxifen acts as an agonist for GPR30 to stimulate cell proliferation and growth. Inhibition of GPR30 eliminates the tamoxifen-stimulated proliferation of endometrial cancer cells (53). More importantly, a significant correlation between GPR30 expression and tamoxifen-induced endometrial pathology has been identified (54). A cohort study comparing the expression pattern of GPR30 in endometrial tissue from breast cancer patients who received tamoxifen, or another adjuvant therapy, showed that the intensity of GPR30 expression was significantly correlated with the time between the how many calories of tamoxifen treatment and the development of an endometrial abnormality.

Among tamoxifen-treated breast cancer patients, 43. Studies utilizing different model systems have been conducted to systematically determine the molecular pathways affected by tamoxifen and estradiol in vitro and in vivo. These studies have indicated that, although there is an overlap between the tamoxifen- and estradiol-induced gene expression profiles, tamoxifen also regulates its own specific set of genes in endometrial cells. In a study by Tamm-Rosenstein et al (55), the endometrial Ishikawa cancer cell line was treated with tamoxifen or estradiol for 12 h, followed by RNA-sequencing.

Tamoxifen exposure how many calories the expression of 1013 genes. Notably, while tamoxifen is often considered an agonist to estrogen in endometrial cells, the transcriptome results indicate that tamoxifen is both antagonistic and agonistic in the Ishikawa cell line.

Similarly, a study utilizing primary cultures of human endometrial epithelial cultures showed that the majority of genes altered by how many calories treatment for 24 hrs were estrogen-independent (56).

Fong et al (13) injected a single dose of tamoxifen or ethinylestradiol to immature ovariectomized mice, and observed здесь significant increase in uterine wet weight after 24 h.

Microarray analysis revealed that tamoxifen and ethinylestradiol target genes overlapped but tamoxifen also independently regulated genes how many calories with cell growth and proliferation, cytoskeletal organization, extracellular matrix modification, nucleotide synthesis, DNA replication, protein synthesis and turnover, lipid metabolism, glycolysis and immunological responses (13). Notably, these investigators found that tamoxifen uses the same set of cell cycle genes as estradiol to promote cell proliferation in endometrial tissue, however, it does so to a lesser extent (57).

The results obtained through these methods aid in the identification of immediate targets of tamoxifen on endometrial cells. However, the association of endometrial cancer incidence rate with duration of tamoxifen exposure indicates that long-term exposure of tamoxifen has additional promoting effects on endometrial carcinogenesis. As endometrial carcinogenesis is a progressive and not a sudden event, short-term exposure of endometrial cells to tamoxifen is not likely to reveal all of the signaling pathways that are critical for tamoxifen-promoted endometrial cancer.

To understand the effects of long-term tamoxifen exposure on endometrial tissue, analyses of gene expression profile from large scale clinical data and experiments with long-term treatment of tamoxifen are required. To date, only small scale studies comparing the gene expression profiles of tamoxifen-associated and how many calories endometrial cancers from patient samples have been undertaken.

However, another study with stage-matched patient tissue microarray revealed that gene expression profiles in endometrial tumors are different in tamoxifen users compared with non-users (59).

Unsupervised clustering how many calories all genes in all samples revealed that tumors from patients how many calories had used tamoxifen clustered together, and were separate from samples of how many calories who had never used tamoxifen. This study identified 256 differently expressed genes, the majority of which were tamoxifen-specific. Furthermore, these genes have also been shown to be upregulated and modulate tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer cells, indicating how many calories long-term treatment with tamoxifen may stimulate similar gene networks to promote cancer progression in endometrial cells and overcome sensitivity in breast cancer cells.

The study of endocrine resistance in breast cancer has demonstrated that the UPR signaling pathway is often activated by endocrine therapeutic interventions (60).

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